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Mar 28, 2011

General Training Tips

  • Always warm up by walking for 3-5 minutes before your workout; end each training session with a 3-5 minute cool down, and don't forget to stretch!
  • Be sure to rest from cardio for 1-2 days each week. Resting is just as important as training, because recovery will help you become more fit.
  • Eat right. If you're not eating the right foods, you won't have enough fuel to complete a good workout. Learn what to eat before and after each workout to ensure you'll see results.
  • Mix it up. Nothing causes fitness plateaus like monotony. Besides jogging 2-3 times per week, like this program recommends, find other ways to change up your cardio routine.
  • Keep at it. If you don't continue to run regularly, you'll lose the endurance that took you weeks to build up. Run on a regular basis, aiming for 2-3 sessions each week to maintain your fitness level. Over time, try to increase your speed and distance.
  • - By Jason Anderson and Nicole Nichols, Certified Fitness Professionals

The 3-Minute Step Test Scoring
Scoring: Here are the age-adjusted standards based on guidelines published by YMCA. 

Ratings for Men, Based on Age

Above Average88-9388-9492-8895-10197-10094-102
Below Average102-107104-110108-113113-119111-117114-118
Very Poor124-157126-161130-163131-159131-154130-151

Ratings for Women, Based on Age

Above Average96-10295-101100-104104-110106-111104-111
Below Average113-120113-119115-120120-124119-127123-126
Very Poor135-169134-171137-169137-171141-174135-155

How to use a metronome?- The 3-Minute Step Test

metronome is a practice tool that produces a steady pulse (or beat) to help musicians play rhythms accurately. The pulses are measured in beats-per-minute (BPM). Most metronomes are capable of playing beats from 35 to 250 BPM. Common uses of the metronome are helping you to maintain an established tempo while practicing, and learning difficult passages.
The first step in metronome use is to understand time signatures. Time signatures are found at the beginning of a musical piece, after the clef and the key signature. Time signatures (also called meter signatures) consist of two numbers. The top number indicates the number of beats in a measure, while the bottom number corresponds to the value of the beat. Most often, you will see 2, 3, 4 or 6 beats per measure. Beats are commonly half notes (the bottom number of the meter signature is “2”) or quarter notes (“4”) (the bottom number of the meter signature is “4”). Visit 

Mar 26, 2011

Volleyball spiking Drills

Volleyball spiking Drills

Arm Snaps: Two athletes work together with one ball. Facing each other on the sidelines, players toss the ball up in the air with two hands and then spike the ball down into the middle of the court. They should work on a high contact point and wrist snap.

Standing Spikes: Coach tosses balls for the hitters about 10 feet back from the net. The hitter should have the hitting elbow back and up. The hitter steps to where the ball is falling and uses the hitting arm swing to hit it over the net into the court. The hitter focuses on an "elbow to wrist" contact.

Arm Swings on the Wall: Two athletes work together with one ball. One athlete stands facing the wall (about 15 feet back from it) with his/her hitting elbow up and behind his/her shoulder and the non-hitting arm up in the air. The partner is standing in front of the hitter and to the side of the hitter’s arm. The partner with the ball tosses it up in front of the hitter for him/her to spike at the wall. The hitter should be aiming at something on the wall that is about net height. 

Box Spiking: Perhaps the most important of all spiking volleyball drills are the ones that involve spiking on a box. Players should spike on a box every practice. When on a box, players should focus on the contacting the ball high, with arm vertical, and contacting in such a manner that makes the ball spin (topspin).

Mar 22, 2011

Zaireey@Pendidikan Jasmani Dan Sains Sukan: Anuar

Zaireey@Pendidikan Jasmani Dan Sains Sukan: Anuar: "Anuar Manan Name:Anuar Family name:Manan Nationality:Malaysia Gender: Age:24 years Date of birth:11-10-1986 Place of birth:Kuala Ibai, Tren..."

Mar 18, 2011

Muscular Strength, Power, and Endurance

In practical evaluations muscular function, the force-generating characteristics of muscle are discussed within the concepts of muscular strength, power, and endurance. These characteristics of muscle function have significant implications for success in different forms of strenuous physical activity.

(a) Muscular Strength
Muscular strength is derived both from the amount of tension the muscles can generate and from the moment arms of the contributing muscles with respect to the joint centre. The tension-generating capability of a muscle is related to its cross-sectional area and its training state.

(b) Muscular Power
Muscular power is the product of muscular force and the velocity of muscle shortening. Maximum power occurs at approximately one-third of maximum velocity and at approximately one-third  of maximum
concentric force. Muscular power is an important contributor to activities requiring both strength and speed.

(c) Muscular Endurance
Muscular endurance is the ability of the muscle to  exert tension over time. The longer the time tension exerted, then greater the endurance.

(d) Muscle Fatigue
Muscle fatigue has been defined as an exercise-induced reduction in the maximal force capacity of muscle. Fatigability is also the opposite of endurance. The more rapidly a muscle fatigues, the less endurance it has.

Factors Affecting Muscular Force Generation

Factors Affecting Muscular Force Generation
The magnitude of the force generated by muscle is also related to the velocity
of muscle shortening, the length of the muscle when it is stimulated, and the
period of time since the muscle received a stimulus. Because these factors
are significant determiners of muscle force.

(a) Force-Velocity Relationship
The maximal force that a muscle can develop is governed by the
velocity of the muscle’s shortening or lengthening.

(b) Length-Tension Relationship
The amount of maximum isometric tension a muscle is capable of
producing is partly dependent on the muscle’s length. In single muscle
fibers, isolated muscle preparations, and in vivo human muscles, force
generation is at its peak when the muscle is slightly stretched.

Conversely, muscle tension development capability is less following
muscle shortening. Both the duration of muscle stretch or shortening
and the time since stretch or shortening affect force generation

(c) Electromechanical Delay
When a muscle is stimulated, a brief period elapse  before the muscle
begins to develop tension and is referred to as electromechanical
delay(EMD), this time is believed to be needed for  the contractile
component of the muscle to stretch the series elastic component(SEC).
During this time, muscle laxity is eliminated.  Once the SEC is
sufficiently stretched, tension development proceeds.

Extensibility and Elasticity

Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or increase in length, and
elasticity is the ability to return to normal length after a stretch. Muscle’s
elasticity returns it to normal resting length following a stretch and
provides for the smooth transmission of tension from muscle to bone.

Irritability and the Ability to Develop Tension
Irritability is the ability to respond to a stimulus. Stimuli affecting
muscles are either electrochemical, such as an action potential from the
attaching nerve or mechanical, such as an external blow to a portion of
a muscle. When activated by a stimulus, muscle responds by
developing tension.

Mar 17, 2011

Yo-Yo Endurance Test

The Yo-Yo Endurance Test (continuous) is a variation of the beep test. There are two versions of this test: Level 1 & 2 (a beginners and advanced level). The level one test is effectively the same as the standard beep test. The Level 2 test starts at a higher running speed and has different increments in speed (see Yo-Yo Endurance Test Levels). There is also an intermittent version of the Yo-Yo test, which incorporates a recovery period after each 40m (2x20m) run.
  • purpose: The test evaluates an individual's aerobic endurance fitness.
  • equipment required: Flat, non-slip surface, marking conesmeasuring tape, pre-recorded audio cd or mp3 (buy or make your own), cd player, recording sheets.
  • procedure: Use cones to mark out two lines 20 meters apart as per the diagram. The subjects start with their foot behind one of the lines, and begin running when instructed. They continue running between the two lines, turning when signaled by the recorded beeps. After each minute or so, the pace gets quicker. If the line is not reached in time the subject must run to the line turn and try to catch up with the pace within 2 more ‘beeps’. The test is stopped if the subject fails to catch up with the pace within the two ends.
  • variations: There are two versions of this test: Level 1 & 2. The level one test is effectively the same as the standard beep test. The Level 2 test starts at a higher running speed and has different increments in speed. See Yo-Yo Endurance Test levels. See also about Beep Test variations.
  • scoring: The athlete's score is the total distance covered before they were unable to keep up with the recording. The Yo-Yo intermittent test usually takes between 6-20 minutes for level 1 and between 2-10 minutes for level 2. See some Yo Yo Test Results.
  • target population: This test is suitable for sports teams and school groups, but not for populations in which a maximal exercise test would be contraindicated. It is commonly performed by soccer players.
  • reliability: Reliability would depend on how strictly the test is run, and the previous practice allowed for the subjects.
  • advantages: Large groups can perform this test all at once for minimal costs.
  • disadvantages: Practice and motivation levels can influence the score attained, and the scoring of when a person is out of the test can be subjective. As the test is usually conducted outside, the environmental conditions can also affect the results. The test cd must be purchased.
  • other considerations: This test is a maximal test, which requires a reasonable level of fitness. It is not recommended for recreational athletes or people with health problems, injuries or low fitness levels. You may not have power where you want to conduct this test. If so, you need to ensure that the batteries of the audio player are fully charged.
  • comments: This test was developed by the Danish soccer physiologist Jens Bangsbo and his colleagues.

Mar 16, 2011

Atomic crisis deepens in disaster-struck Japan

By Hiroshi Hiyama | AFP News – 1 hour 5 minutes ago
Japanese crews grappling with the world's worst nuclear incident since Chernobyl temporarily pulled out Wednesday as radiation rose following feared damage to a reactor containment vessel.
The evacuation order at the Fukushima nuclear power plant, where a tall stack of white cloud billowed high into the sky, deepened the crisis gripping Japan after an earthquake and tsunami pulverised its east coast on Friday.
"Around 10:40 am (0140 GMT) we ordered the evacuation of workers... due to the rise in (radioactivity) data around the gate" of the ageing plant, a nuclear safety agency official said at a televised news conference.
The radiation levels peaked at a relatively low 6.4 millisieverts, officials said, but some three hours later there was no news on whether the crews had been allowed back into the plant 250 kilometres (155 miles) northeast of Tokyo.
With nerves on edge across the world's third-biggest economy and beyond, people across Asia have been stripping shelves of essentials for fear of a major emission of radiation from the stricken power plant on the east coast.
Before the evacuation order, crews at Fukushima contended with a new fire and feared damage to the vessel containing one of the plant's six reactor cores.
However, after the Tokyo stock exchange's biggest two-day sell-off in 24 years sparked a global market rout, the headline Nikkei share index recovered 4.37 percent on Wednesday morning as investors snapped up bargains. Related article: China steps up readiation vigilance amid Japan crisis
The Bank of Japan pumped another 3.5 trillion yen ($43.3 billion) into the financial system, adding to trillions spent this week since the 9.0 magnitude earthquake and towering tsunami crippled a large swathe of the economy.
Authorities are staring at a staggering death toll. The devastation in tsunami-hit areas such as the small fishing town of Minamisanriku is absolute, with the northeastern settlement missing about half of its 17,000 people.
Scene: Japan shelters calm amid tsunami chaos
"Ten of my relatives are missing. I haven't been able to get in contact with them," 54-year-old Minamisanriku resident Tomeko Sato, who lost her house in the disaster, told AFP.
"I was very surprised by the power of the tsunami... next time, I will live on the hill and hope it never happens again."
Millions in Japan have been left without water, electricity, fuel or enough food and hundreds of thousands more are homeless, stoically coping with snow and freezing rain in the northeast.
At the crippled Fukushima nuclear plant, live TV footage showed the cloud of white smoke rising high into the clear blue sky.
The containment vessel around the core of reactor number three may have suffered damage, and the "likeliest possibility" for the white cloud was steam escaping from the vessel, chief government spokesman Yukio Edano said. Related article: Two Australians contaminated in Japan
The number-three reactor was hit by a blast Monday that tore off the outer structure of the reactor building.
Fire crews fought a new blaze early Wednesday at reactor number four, operator Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) said, but it was later extinguished.
Engineers have been desperately battling a feared meltdown at the 40-year-old plant since the earthquake and tsunami knocked out cooling systems and fuel rods began overheating. Related article: Far from Japan disaster epicenter, fears mount
There have now been four explosions and two fires at the complex, with four out of its six reactors in trouble.
France's Nuclear Safety Authority said the disaster now equated to a six on the seven-point international scale for nuclear accidents, ranking the crisis second only in gravity to the level-seven Chernobyl disaster in 1986.
But Yukiya Amano, the Japanese chief of the International Atomic Energy Agency, insisted Tuesday there was no comparison to the Chernobyl crisis, when radiation spewed across Europe.
Reaction: Take nuke crisis more seriously: A-bomb survivors
The head of the UN's atomic watchdog said that unlike Chernobyl, the Fukushima reactors have primary containment vessels and had also shut down automatically when the earthquake hit, so there was no chain reaction going on.
President Barack Obama, who has dispatched a naval flotilla led by a US aircraft carrier to aid in the quake-tsunami rescue operation, said he was "deeply worried" about the potential human cost of the disaster in Japan.
The government in Tokyo said it was ready to draft in more help from the 49,000 US military personnel stationed in Japan.
Obama also vowed to "further improve" the safety of US atomic facilities, while several European nations announced reviews of their own nuclear installations and Germany temporarily shut down seven reactors.Hoax emails and text messages warning of radiation drifting south from Japan have set off a run on essentials such as bottled water and fresh milk in places as far afield as the Philippines.
China said it was stepping up checks of travellers and goods inbound from Japan for possible radiation contamination.
Focus: Europe starts pulling citizens out of Japan
Japan's government has warned that panic buying could hurt its ability to provide aid to areas devastated by Friday's natural disaster, which has left 3,373 confirmed dead. Many thousands more are still missing.
Edano, who is the chief cabinet secretary, said Japan as a whole was amply provided with fuel but stressed that petrol and kerosene were "very short" in the ravaged northeast.
"Those who do not live in disaster-hit areas, please do not buy (fuel) in bulk. We have enough to meet the nationwide demand," he said, adding that the government was doing its all to get fuel to the north.
The normally heaving streets and subways of Tokyo were quieter than usual on Wednesday morning. The number of people sporting paper face masks has shot up, although the masks are no use against radiation.
Radiation levels in the capital's vast urban sprawl of 30 million people have see-sawed without ever reaching harmful levels, according to the government.
But the government has warned people living up to 10 kilometres (six miles) beyond a 20-kilometre exclusion zone around the Fukushima plant to stay indoors. More than 200,000 people have already been evacuated from the zone.
"What we most fear is a radiation leak from the nuclear plant," Kaoru Hashimoto, 36, a housewife living in Fukushima city, 80 kilometres northwest of the power plant, told AFP by phone.
"Many children are sick in this cold weather, but pharmacies are closed. Emergency relief goods have not reached evacuation centres in the city," she said.
"Everyone is anxious and wants to get out of town, but there is no more petrol."

Mar 13, 2011


Tennis is a game that can be played in singles or doubles. It is a game that is based on a small ball and the racket is strung. Courts have expanded throughout Europe, especially in the countries of the UK and is played by the aristocracy. Tennis is not a lot of experience in the evolution of regulations and laws except in the tie-break only.This game has been the focus of the world, especially the four Grand Slam tournaments of the Australian Open, French Open, Wimbledon Open and the Open USA. According to some historical records, the game ball and the racket has been played since ancient times, the Egyptian and Greek. In the 11th century, a game that is jen de paumeyang resembles a game of tennis today, has played for the first time in a region in France. The ball used was coated with fur yarn, while.
This game was introduced in Italy and Britain in the 13th century and it received overwhelming response in a short time. Many local people show an interest in this game. Since then, the sport of tennis continues to expand into the countries of Europe. The changes started to happen when the racket strung introduced. It was first introduced in the 15th century by Antonio de Scalo, an ethnic Italian priest. He has written a general law for all games, including a tennis ball. UK magazine, Sporting Magazine named this game as tennis wilderness. In the Book of Games and Sports which was published in 1801, was named as a tennis game long. Tennis, was an elite game. In the era of the reign of Queen Victoria, began playing tennis by the middle of making a game out. Be the first tennis club was founded in France Leamington Club which was founded by J. B. Perera, Major Harry Gem, Dr. And Dr. Frederick Haynes. Arthur Tompkins in 1874. The Courier newspaper on July 23, 1884 have recorded the first tennis tournament held in Shrubland Hall. At that time, known as pelotaatau lawn tennis rackets. In 1874, tennis was first played in the United States by Dr. James Dwight and F. R. Sears. Meanwhile, the All England Croquet Club was established in 1868. Two years later, he opened his office in Worple Road, Wimbledon. In 1875, the club has agreed to allocate part of his land to a game of tennis and badminton. Accordingly, a legal game of lawn tennis courts have been enacted. United States has established the club's first tenisnya Staten Island and start from there, the game of tennis in the United States has grown tremendously. It has also produced many renowned tennis player who has dominated the international tennis arena. Grass Court Tennis Championships first began in 1877 in which a total of 21 players took part in the tournament was won by Spencer William Gore. Now, the tournament was known as the Wimbledon Championships. Overall, the game of tennis is one of the leading and popular game around the world.It also has produced many champions and tennis stars like Jimmy Connors, John McEnroe, Ile Natashe, Bjorn Borg, Boris Becker, Mats Wilander, Steffi Graf, Monica Seles, Martina Hingis, Pete Sampras and Andre Agassi and many others. Now, a game of tennis into a commercial form that offers a lucrative prize. 

Futsal Field Dimensions

- Size 4 Ball - 30% Less Bounce
- 5 Players
- Unlimited "Flying" Substitutions
- Kick-IN
- Stopped Clock
- 20 Minute halves
- 1 Time-Out Per Half
- Goal Clearance (Thrown)
- No Sholder Charges or Sliding Tackles
- 4-Second Rule on Restarts
- No offside Rule
- No Restrictions, but Limited to 4 Seconds
- Goalkeeper Cannot Touch By Hand a Ball Played Back

Zaireey@Pendidikan Jasmani Dan Sains Sukan: Contoh Ukuran Padang Bola Sepak

Zaireey@Pendidikan Jasmani Dan Sains Sukan: Contoh Ukuran Padang Bola Sepak

Mar 12, 2011

What does the nervous system do to the human body

What does the nervous system do to the human body?

Read more:

How does the human body move

Muscles move on commands from the brain. Single nerve cells in the spinal cord, called motor neurons, are the only way the brain connects to muscles. When a motor neuron inside the spinal cord fires, an impulse goes out from it to the muscles on a long, very thin extension of that single cell called an axon. When the impulse travels down the axon to the muscle, a chemical is released at its ending. Muscles are made of long fibers connected to each other longways by a ratchet mechanism, the kind of mechanism that allows the two parts of an extension ladder to slide past each other and then lock in a certain position. When the chemical impulse from the motor neuron hits the muscle, it causes to muscle fibers to rachet past each other, overlapping each other more, so that the muscle gets shorter and fatter. When the impulses from the nerves stop, the muscle fibers slide back to their original positions.
Each motor neuron connects to just one muscle, say the bicep on the front of your upper arm that lifts your forearm, or to the triceps, the one on the back that extends your forearm. But when you move, you never think, "I'd like to contract my bicep two inches and relax my tricep two inches" -- instead you think, "I'd like to put this cake in my mouth!" How does the brain translate from the general idea to lift something to your mouth to specific commands to muscles? It does it in stages. In the cerebral cortex, the commands in the neurons there represent coordinated movements - like pick up the cake, hit the ball, salute. The cortex then connects to a sort of console in the spinal cord that overlays the motor neurons. This console lays out arm position in space, up-down, left-right. Each desired arm position then is read out as a collection of specific commands to each motor neuron and muscle.(

Read more:

Stability and Balance

Stability and Balance
A concept closely related to the principles of equilibrium is stability. Stability is
defined mechanically as resistance to both linear and angular acceleration, or
resistance to disruption of equilibrium. An individual’s ability to control
equilibrium is known as balance. Different mechanical factors affect a body’s
stability. According to Newton’s second law of motion, the more massive an
object is, the greater is the force required to produce a given acceleration.
The greater the amount of friction is between an object and the surface or
surfaces it contacts, the greater is the force requirement for initiating or
maintaining motion. Another factor affecting stability is the size of the base of
support and CG.


 Force and Momentum Concep

Understanding the concepts of inertia, mass, weight, pressure, volume,
density, specific weight, torque and impulse provides a useful foundation for
understanding the effects of forces.
(a) Concept and Definition
A force can be thought of as a push or pull acting on a body. Each force
is characterized by its magnitude, direction and point of application to a
given body. Body weight, friction, and air or water resistance are all
forces that commonly act on the human body. The action of force
causes a body’s mass to accelerate. Momentum, a mechanical quantity
that is particularly important in situations involving collisions. Momentum
may be defined generally as the quantity of motion  that an object
possesses. More specifically, linear momentum is the product of an
object’s mass and its velocity. A static object (with zero velocity) has no
momentum; that is, its momentum equals zero. A change in a body’s
momentum may be caused by either a change in the body’s mass or a
change in its velocity.

(b) Application of Force and Momentum
Units of force are units of mass multiplied by units of acceleration. In the
metric system, the most common unit of force is the Newton(N), which
is the amount of force required to accelerate 1 kg  of mass at 1 m/s2
Because a number of forces act simultaneously in most situations,
constructing a free body diagram is usually the first step when analyzing
the effects of forces on a body or system of interest. A free body is any
object, body, or body part that is being focused upon for analysis. When
all acting forces are balanced, or cancel each other out, the net force is
zero, and the body remains in its original state of motion, either
motionless or moving with a constant velocity. When a net force is
present, the body moves in the direction of the net force and with an
acceleration that is proportional to the magnitude of the net force. Units
of momentum are units of mass multiplied by units of velocity,
expressed in terms of kg m/s. Because velocity is a vector quantity,

momentum is also a vector quantity and is subject to the rules of vector
composition and resolution. When a head-on collision between two
objects occurs, there is a tendency for both objects to continue moving
in the direction of motion originally possessed by  the object with the
greatest momentum.

Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces
Bodies undergoing rotary motion around a fixed axis are also subject to a
linear force. When an object attached to a line is whirled around in a circular
path and then released, the object flies off on a path that forms a tangent to
the circular path it was following at the point at which it was released, since
this is the direction it was travelling in at the point of release. Centripetal force
prevents the rotating body from leaving its circular path while rotation occurs
around a fixed axis. The direction of a centripetal force is always toward the
centre of rotation; this is the reason it is also known as centre seeking force.
Centripetal force produces the radial component of the acceleration of a body
travelling on a curved path. The magnitude of centripetal force depends on
the mass, speed, and radius of rotation of the rotating body. When rounding a
corner in a relay race, there is a sensation of being pushed in the direction of
the outside of the curve. What is felt has been referred to as centrifugal force.
This is because, according to Newton’s first law, the body’s inertia tends to
cause it to continue travelling on a straight, rather than a curved path.

Susan J. Hall. (1999). Basic biomechanics.(5th ed.). Boston: WCB/McGrawHill

Mar 11, 2011


Hukum Newton memainkan peranan yang penting dalam kehidupan manusia. Boleh dikatakan setiap pergerakan manusia melibatkan hukum-hukum tersebut. Hukum Newton Pertama menyatakan bahawa sesuatu objek akan kekal dalam keadaan pegun atau terus bergerak dengan halaju seragam dalam satu garisan lurus sehinggalah ada suatu daya luar bertindak terhadapnya.
            Hukum Newton Kedua pula menyatakan perubahan terhadap gerakan adalah berkadar terus dengan daya yang dikenakan dan dalam arah garisan lurus di mana arah daya itu dikenakan. Jadi, jelaslah bahawa Hukum Newton Pertama berkaitan dengan hukum Newton Kedua.
            Hukum Newton Ketiga pula menyatakan bahawa setiap tindakan (aksi) sesuatu objek akan terdapat satu tindakbalas (reaksi) yang sama magnitud tetapi dalam arah yang bertentangan. Hukum ini juga digunakan dalam teknologi angkasa lepas untuk melancarkan roket. Begitu juga dengan kapal terbang yang mengenakan aksi pada sayap manakala angin pula memberi reaksi bertentangan kepada kapal terbang untuk terbang tinggi.


Definisi Terminalogi: Instrumentasi (instrumentation)
Merupakan sejenis alat (tool) yang digunakan untuk mengukur dan mendapatkan data secara saintifik dan sistematik. Data yang dikumpulkan berbentuk kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Data yang diperolehi oleh pengkaji digunakan untuk dianalisis bagi menjawab persoalan kajian yang telah ditetapkan. Ahmad Hashim ( 2004) menyatakan instrumen merupakan alat ujian yang digunakan untuk mengukur dan menilai maklumat. Insrtumen yang digunakan mestilah mempunyai komponen kebolehpercayaan, objektiviti dan kesahan. Penggunaan instrumen yang piawai secara berterusan dapat meningkatkan kualiti pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Jika instrumen yang digunakan tidak mempunyai kesahan, kebolehpercayaan dan keobjektifan yang lemah ia akan memberi dapatan dan keputusan ujian yang boleh dipertikaikan. Mengikut Johnson dan Nelson (1986) secara umumnya terdapat 4 aspek penting dalam pemilihan dan pembinaan instrumen iaitu:
i. Kesahan
ii. Kebolehpercayaan
iii. Objektif
iv. Norma
Next Posts :Ujian Makmal (Laboratory Testing),Ujian Lapangan (field Testing),Bateri Ujian (Test Battery),Pemerhatian Sistematik (Systematic Obsservation),Instrumen Untuk Tinjauan (survey Instruments) @ dapatkan nota penuh secara percuma di

Fasa Pegangan Peluru

Fasa Pegangan Peluru (Grip):

Cara memegang peluru boleh dibahagikan kepada dua.
Cara memegang dengan lima jari. Kelima-lima jari digunakan untuk memegang peluru.
Cara memegang dengan tiga jari. Peluru disokong oleh tiga jari tangan tengah. Ibu jari dan jari kelengkeng menyangga peluru.
Fasa Lakuan Sedia (Preparation)

Lungsuran (Glide)

Lontaran (Delivery Phase)

Dalam fasa lontaran yang pertama ini ianya membantu mengekal kelajuan lontaran dan menyediakan posisi untuk lontaran.

Dalam fasa lontaran kedua ini pula objektif utamanya ialah untuk memindahkan daya kelajuan yang dihasilkan oleh pelontar ke sasaran.

Dalam fasa ini objektif yang sama seperti di bahagian dua di mana dalam fasa ini pelontar melengkapkan pergerakan tangan hingga selesai

Pulihan (Recovery)
Dalam fasa ini tujuan utama pergerakan akhir pelontar ialah untuk menstabilkan posisi dirian setelah lontaran dibuat. Fasa pulihan ini juga membantu mengelak pelontar dari terbatal.


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