Jun 11, 2013

Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)

Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)

What is Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)?
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in the newborn, also known as hyaline membrane disease, is a common complication seen in premature babies. Babies with this condition will develop breathing difficulty and may require intensive care management. RDS can be mild or severe, the severity and progression depend mainly on lung maturity.

10 facts on child health

10 facts on child health

A child's risk of dying is highest in the first month of life.

In the first month of life safe childbirth and effective neonatal care are essential. Preterm birth, birth asphyxia and infections cause most newborn deaths. Once children have reached one month of age, and up until the age of five years, the main causes of loss of life are pneumonia, diarrhoea, and malaria. Malnutrition contributes to more than one-third of all child deaths.

WHO | Sex work

WHO | Sex work

Dec 28, 2012

Types of Exercise

Depending on the purpose for you doing exercise, there are a variety of types of exercise available to you. For example, if you're trying to improve stamina and your circulatory system, aerobic exercise would benefit you.If you're trying to build muscle, then flexibility and weights would be the proper choice. Whatever you goals are, you'll be able to find the type of exercise appropriate for you, and an exercise regimen that will of the proper intensity and gradient so that you can win with an exercise program.
There are two types of exercise:

1.          Aerobic
2.          Anaerobic
What is Aerobic Exercise
The word aerobic is made up of two Greek words: Aeros meaning air and Bios meaning life.
Aerobic exercise is vigorous enough to increase the body's need for oxygen and hence air intake and breathing rate increase.  Aerobic exercise is done at a pace that allows an adequate supply of oxygen to reach your muscles as you work out.  If you can hum to yourself or carry on a conversation as you work out then you are probably exercising aerobically.  This type of exercise can be continued for 20 - 45 minutes without being exhausting.
Some Examples of Aerobic Exercise include:
Swimming,Brisk Walking,Cycling,Jogging,Rowing,Aerobics classes

What is Anaerobic Exercise?

Anaerobic means literally without air or oxygen.  A term applied to microbes which can thrive only in the absence of oxygen; but it also refers to the converse of aerobic exercise, where sustained intensive exercise (eg sprinting) exceeds the body's capacity to deliver oxygen so that the muscles use energy derived from anaerobic metabolism resulting in an oxygen deficit which has to be replenished later. Anaerobic exercise involves intense or explosive spurts of strenuous activity that leaves you gasping for breath.  This exercise can only be done for a minute or too at a time, because it depends on limited stores of glycogens (sugars) stored in the muscles, which are rapidly depleted, resulting in intense muscle fatigue.

Examples (of anaerobic exercise)

Weight lifting,Sprinting

Best Types Of Exercise
The best types of exercise combine 3 elements:

1.          Stamina
2.          Strength
3.          Suppleness

There are many different types of aerobic exercise and which one is best for you to use is dependent on your time limits, financial and physical limitations, and personal choice. Low impact exercises like walking, swimming and cycling are probably the cheapest and most practical types of aerobic exercise to take. These supply the benefits without the risks of injuries such as back and knee-joint problems that can occur in high impact exercise like jogging. Walking and swimming are relatively cheap, you don't have to pay gym fees and require little in the way of special sports clothing or equipment.  You can use different ones daily.  The important thing to bear in mind is that it has to be aerobic for 20 minutes.

You need to add resistance or weight-training to your programme as lifting is an important component of exercise because it increases your strength.

A good exercise programme includes 3 types of exercise:
1.          Stretching (to improve flexibility) (Yoga, Tai Chi).
2.          Endurance (aerobic) to improve cardio fitness.
3.          Strength training (weight training).

It is wise, if suffering from stress, to avoid competitive types of exercise as research indicates competitive exercise can be stressful instead of relaxing.  So walking, swimming, cycling etc., are good, non-competitive aerobic exercise, but competitive exercise for example, squash and tennis, should be avoided.  Exercise should not be used in isolation but in order to get maximum stress reduction benefits, it should be used along with relaxation, nutrition, Tai Chi, etc.

 Also see:

Dec 25, 2012


What is a hernia?
It is the protrusion of the contents of abdomen(usually gut) through an opening or weak area in wall of the body.e.g.. Femoral canal. Epiploic foramen


What is exomphalos?
It is the persistence of physiological hernia of midgut loop outside the abfominal cavity.


What is the position of umbilicus?
In young adults at anterior median line at level of junction between L3 and L4 vertebra. It is lower in inffants and in thosr with pendulous abdomen.

Dec 16, 2012

What is Doping

'Doping' is the word used in sport when athletes use prohibited substances or methods to unfairly improve their sporting performance.

Doping in sport remains a serious and difficult issue, putting an athlete’s health at risk whilst also threatening the integrity of clean athletes and the reputation of sport.
Substances and methods are banned for a reason. Doping, the use of artificial enhancements to gain an advantage over others in competition, is cheating and is fundamentally contrary to the spirit of sport. Further, doping robs true athletes who play by the rules of their right to competition that is safe and fair.
Doping affects not just top athletes, but also future generations who may be influenced by what top athletes do. Only by taking a concerted and comprehensive approach to the fight against doping in sport is it possible to protect the integrity of sport, the health of athletes, and young aspiring sports people worldwide.
It is integral to the nature of sport itself that spectators and participants of all sports are confident that the competition is fair and clean. (http://www.ukad.org.uk/what-we-do/about-doping/)

Mar 24, 2012

The Axiata Cup

The Axiata Cup will include Men’s teams from the following nations: Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam and the Philippines. The championship is sanctioned by the Badminton Asian Confederation (BAC) and the Badminton World Federation (BWF) and organized by Total Sports Asia (TSA).  The Axiata Cup will capitalize on the popularity of National Team competitions such as the Thomas Cup and the Sudirman Cup and will use a three-match format including two singles and one doubles match per tie which gives more teams an opportunity to win). Each team consists of six players as the coach may elect to replace singles/doubles players from day to day (back-up players). Teams may also field up to two foreign players each—this means that even lower ranked teams can recruit the world’s top talent to boost their chances against the top teams.

Mar 10, 2012


Through training, the muscles that work against a challenging work loadprogressively to increase muscle mass and cross-sectional area, referred to ashypertrophy. But why one muscle cells can grow and how it developed? Musclehypertrophy can be defined as the growth and increase the size of muscle cells. In general, most of the muscle hypertrophy occurs as a result of physical exercise,like lifting weights. When a person starts exercising, the nerve will send impulses to muscles to make the process of contraction. This will result in significantchanges in muscle size. In a continuous training, there is a complex interaction of the nervous system resulting in an increase in protein synthesis and muscle cellsbegan to grow bigger and stronger. Skeletal muscle has two basic functions ofthe contracts to cause movement of the body and relax to provide stability forbody posture. Each skeletal muscle must be able to contract and relax to make amotion. Progressive overload is one way of applying pressure levels vary andintermittently for skeletal muscle, in order to adjust the level of muscle tension.Muscle can be adapted to increase the size and number of proteins, consisting ofmuscle fibers miofibril in each, leading to an increase in the size of individualmuscle fibers and employment requirements for daily work.

Mar 7, 2012

The concept of Sport Science

One area the study .... principles and techniques of application of scientifictechniques for the repair and enhance the commission man in sports.
The concept of Sport Science
 This development comes from the field P.Jasmani skills associated withlearning / motor.
 Efforts to improve the performance of athletes has brought rapid development in the field of Sports Science.
• Covers the field of science such as: Nutrition, Sports Medicine, SportsPsychology,
Exercise Physiology, Biomechanics, Training Methodology, Physiotherapy, Technology Sports, Movement Analysis
• Increase knowledge about the human response to training .....


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